Vic Biorseth, Wednesday, January 18, 2012
Definition of Islam: Ideology of military conquest masquerading as a religion, based on the supposedly prophetic teaching of Mohammed.
All the world, and just about any dictionary definition of Islam, recognizes Islam as a major monotheistic religion, characterized chiefly by the doctrines requiring absolute submission to God, recognition of Mohammed as the final prophet of God, and recognition of the Koran as the final word of God. That, in a nutshell, is the official, recognized definition of Islam that you will find everywhere you look. But, it is a definition that is largely supplied by Islam, or from within Islam, which would be the first logical place you might look to get a good definition and understanding.
However, I submit that the definition of Islam that most all of the world recognizes as correct is quite wrong, in the same way that so much of the world accepts a false Definition of Marxism, because Marxism is in truth a very carefully and artfully crafted fraud. You can see the explanation of the fraud of Marxism in the Refuting Marx page. Marxism, too, is nothing other than a strategy of conquest, via the path of violent revolution.
Islam, like Marxism, needs to be examined from the outside, which means that we need to look at the history of its development since birth. Any movement that has been around for any length of time can be judged by what it has done and how it has behaved. With movements inspired by Marx, we can look at the history of Nazi-Fascism and the history of Communism; in a similar manner, we can look at Islamic lands and Islamic history.
Islam publicly claims to be a religion of peace, and that description has been added into most official definitions of Islam. However, these definitions are called into question by history. All across Africa and the Middle East, in the historical advancement of Islam, every land that “converted” to Islam, was won over to Islam via the sword, not through peaceful conversion. No exceptions. Most, if not all, of the current African nations that are today Islamic were once Christian, and they were forced, under pain of death, to submit to Islam. Thus we may see that Islam is a “religion” of conquest by war.
Religion, or Ideology? In open defiance of the definition of Islam that you have probably held all your life, I submit that Islam, as a religion, is a fraud, and that it was a fraud from the beginning. You can see the details of Mohammed’s life in the Refuting Mohammed page.
Essentially, Mohammed claimed to have been visited by an angel of God and called to prophesy. Perhaps he had a dream or a hallucination, or the imaginative birth of what would develop into an elaborate scheme, but there was no visit by any angel. Or if there was, then it was the wrong kind of angel. Under encouragement and coaxing from his rich elderly wife, he eventually went public with his being “chosen” as God’s prophet. His initial preaching regarding his being God’s prophet at Mecca largely fell on deaf ears; other than a small following, he was largely rejected.
He turned to Jews and Christians, again without much success. He radically modified his original teaching – his “prophesy” – and took it back to the leaders of Mecca, and again was rejected and scoffed at. At the death of his wife, and a powerful relative, and the loss of the protection of a powerful clan, he and his entourage fled Mecca for Medina, where he began his “religion.” From there, after gaining political power through religious persuasion, he became increasingly fierce, politically powerful, warlike and vengeful. He launched attacks against the caravans going in and out of Mecca, and murderous attacks against the Jews wherever he could find them. Islam here became a strategy of conquest. Whomever he faced, he offered the opportunity to convert and accept him as the last prophet of God, or, to submit to his absolute legal authority in humiliation and pay a special tax, or, to be put to the sword.
That has been the nature of Islam ever since. Convert, submit, or die; those are your only three options. That’s why I say that the true definition of Islam is an ideology of military conquest masquerading as a religion. Again, you can see the details in the Refuting Mohammed page, and in the various articles linked in the right hand column of that page.
Jihadist Terrorism committed in the name of Islam is grossly misinterpreted throughout the world and in America as a deviation and a perversion of Islamic teaching and thought. But it is standard fare in the world of Islam. It is completely orthodox and mainstream. Most of the West has it exactly reversed; it is the truly peaceful Moslem who perverts or twists Islamic teaching. Moslems do not commit acts of terrorism against non-Moslems until they really get into their religion. The most peaceful Moslems are the least religious.
As an example, let’s compare the words of Osama Bin Laden with the words of the Koran:
How does that fit your definition of Islam as a religion of peace? Any honest definition of Islam should at least mention that it intends to convert you, dominate you or kill you. And, you might think that an honest definition of Islam should at least mention the fact that, once you are converted into Islam, if you ever change your mind and convert to some other religion, you thereby incur a death sentence upon yourself.
In America as in any nation that believes in such taken-for-granted notions as citizen liberty and/or national sovereignty and/or national self-determination, a true definition of Islam should clearly state that Islam Islam opposes liberty, and freedom of religion, and freedom of speech, and freedom of the press, as these things address Islam, Mohammed and the Koran. And a true definition of Islam should clearly state that Islam opposes and intends to eliminate such things as nations, borders and self-determination, of individuals and of nations. An honest definition of Islam would state that Islam, like Marxism, seeks to form a New World Order, and to rule the world with an iron fist. That is the core, central idea of Islam.
Now, just about everybody describes Osama Bin Laden as the preeminent example of one who epitomizes what is described as Islamic Extremism, or Jihadism, or Militant Islamism, or Perverted Islam, or Hijacked Islam, or Islamofascism, or some such pejorative term, indicating that it is not the correct Islam, which is a religion of peace. I submit for your consideration the statement that there is not one whit of difference between what Osama Bin Laden did, after issuing fair warning, that is not in absolute full compliance with the Koran. And, I submit that, within Islam, the Koran is held to be the irrevocable word of God spoken through his prophet Mohammed. All Moslems are called by the Koran to do these things.
Dar Al-Islam Versus Dar Al-Harb. Dar Al-Islam is the House of Islam, meaning, the House of Submission. That is where everyone is in submission to Islamic religion and Islamic law, and the only place where there is peace and where Allah is merciful. Dar Al-Harb is the House of War. That is where we infidels (non-Moslems) live. The whole goal of Islam is to expand the House of Islam at the expense of the House of War.
The ultimate goal of Islam is global domination. Islam is a theocracy; a radical combination of Church and State. The global goal of men like Osama Bin Laden is to bring the whole world into submission to the Islamic religion and Islamic law, or Sharia.
What the true definition of Islam should say is something like this: Islam is a belligerent, aggressive, intolerant, violent, theocratic ideology aimed at global conquest. And that’s exactly what it was from the very beginning.
That’s the real definition of Islam.
Return to Web Site Log (BLOG) page
Return to HOME PAGE
Hover-Link Footnotes: For the convenience of those readers using devices that lack a mouse, these footnotes are provided for all webpages, in case any webpage contains any hover-links. (If you don't have a mouse, you can't "hover" over a link.)
Date: Wed Jan 25 05:48:11 2012
You call this a definition of Islam but it is not a definition of Islam, it is a polemic against Islam. Christians and Jews are held to be our brothers as people of the book. Why don’t you quote the peaceful verses but only the stronger ones? You are no Muslim scholar. How can you claim to properly interpret something you so strongly oppose at the outset? This is not a definition but an outrageous and insensitive attack. You should be ashamed.
Date: Wed Jan 25 06:39:20 2012
From: Vic Biorseth
This may be one of the few honest definitions of Islam you will find. I readily admit that it is a polemic, and that I am a polemical kind of guy. But it is also an accurate definition of Islam.
The “kinder and gentler” verses of Islam you speak of were written of the period before Mohammed fled Mecca and entered Medina; the conquering “convert, submit or die” verses were written after, and as later verses, they displace and abrogate the earlier verses. The later written verses are the ones that stand. See if you can find another definition of Islam that will tell you that simple fact.
In broad terms, the kill the Jews Islamic sentiment replaces the be nice to the Jews sentiment, because Mohammed developed that sentiment second, not first. Whenever he said anything that conflicted with something he had previously said, the latest statement takes precedence, abrogating the previous. See the Refuting Mohammed page.
This is a polemic, yes. But it is also an accurate definition of Islam. And I am not ashamed, but quite proud to stand in the Truth.
Date: Tue Jun 05 19:12:05 2012
Thank you for the most concise definition of Medieval Europe during the height of Catholic power ever written. Now, does the theocratic totalitarian abuses and aggressive wars of Medieval Catholicism define Catholicism? If not, why the double standard with Islam? If so, then why don't you condemn your own faith?
Date: Tue Jun 05 19:58:35 2012
From: Vic Biorseth
You’re very welcome; however, this is not a definition of Medieval Europe, or a definition of Catholicism or Catholic power. It is a definition of Islam, today, and a definition which I submit was accurate the day Islam was invented.
I do not condemn my faith because the Catholic Church is not a theocracy. The only place on earth that it is a theocracy is in Vatican City. Everywhere else on earth, the Church insists upon maintaining the division between civil and ecclesial authority. No cleric or vowed religious, for instance, may hold any civil public office without prior papal consent and a temporary removal of ecclesial office. Even in medieval Europe there was always a distinct separation between popes and emperors.
Islam, on the other hand, is everywhere a permanent, unbreakable combination of civil and theological law. As such, it is both anti-American and anti-Christian. Look to the links in the right column of this page.
Monday, December 31, 2012
Converted Page to SBI! Release 3.0 BB 2.0.
Friday, April 19, 2013
Added link into Sociological Definition Pages right-column link set.
Date: Sun Apr 21 01:12:27 2013
Sir, Islam has never used violence upon anyone to turn to Islam, everyone was given a choice whether to embrace Islam or live freely without any harm. Jewish and Christian were the one to start war against Muslims . People threw Stones upon our Prophet(PBUH) when he came to them with a new religion.
Usama and all these talibans were made by US when US needed to Defeat Russia in Afghanistan. They have the latest weapons because they were once your, you helped them you gave them the weapons but after that defeated Russia and took control of Afghanistan then US called the the terrorist. How can you justify this?
Islam has taught us to never use force to make someone turn to Islam. The verses which you mention from Islam are formed the time when christian and Jewish were commiting atrocities on other people. Islam has taught us to fight when there is unjustice, violence on humans, when people have fallen to lowest moral standards. Islam has taught us to to fight for innocent people who are killed by your troops and supporters like Israel and US. No one asked US to attack Iraq, how can you justify this?
Date: Sun Apr 21 01:12:27 2013
From: Vic Biorseth
Your first statement is a lie. Islam used violence, over and over again, in forcing whole peoples to submit to Islam.
Your second statement is a lie. Islam didn't exist yet when Mohammed first met with Christians and Jews, and they did not attack him.
Your third statement is a lie. Osama and the Taliban pre-existed US support against Russia in Afghanistan.
Al Queda flew highjacked airliners into American buildings - that is how I call them terrorists.
Your final statements are also lies. Islam directly teaches adherents to use violence against non-believers until they are believers, or in submission to Islamic law, or dead.
The typical Islamic monstrous murderer Saddam Hussein was using WMD against people and developing more, among a hotbed area of murderous Islam; that is how the attacks against Iraq were justified.
See the Bush Lied People Died page.
Date: Wed Sep 10 2014
From: Vic Biorseth
Changes pursuant to changing the website URL
and name from
Thinking Catholic Strategic Center to
Catholic American Thinker.
Pulled the trigger on the 301 MOVE IT option June 1, 2014. Working my way through all the webpages. .
Please note the language and tone of this monitored Website. This is not the place to stack up vulgar
one-liners and crude rejoinders. While you may support, oppose or
introduce any position or argument, submissions must meet our
standards of logical rigor and civil discourse. We will not
participate in merely trading insults, nor will we tolerate participants merely
trading insults. Participants should not be
thin-skinned or over sensitive to criticism, but should be prepared to
defend their arguments when challenged. If you don’t really have a
coherent argument or counter-argument of your own, sit down and don’t
embarrass yourself. Nonsensical, immoral or merely insulting submissions will
not be published here. If you have something serious to contribute to
the conversation, back it up, keep it clean and keep it civil. We humbly
apologize to all religious conservative thinkers for the need to even say
these things, but the New Liberals are what they are, and the internet is what it is.
If you fear repercussions, do not use your real name and
do not include email or any identifying information.
Never be lukewarm.
Life itself demands passion.
He who is indifferent to God has already forfeited his soul.
He who is indifferent to politics has already forfeited his liberty.
In America, religion is not mere window dressing and citizenship is not a spectator sport.
Do not allow our common destiny as a whole people to just happen without your input.
Welcome to my website.
Catholic American Thinker Free E-zine Subscription
Do you Know something?
Does it need to be said?
Sociological Definition Pages
Definitions of all the "isms" with a lot of consensus of thinking behind them, which makes them popular opinions or ideas seeking political favor.
Definition of Marxism: Total control of means of production, including workers. The definition of Marxism describes the social, economic and governmental philosophy of Karl Marx, co-author of the Communist Manifesto.
Definition of Freudianism: The psychoanalytical thought and practice of Freud, Jung and Kinsey. This definition of Freudianism addresses Sigmund Freud's turn of psychological focus from cognition and intellect to the unconscious & subconscious mind.
The definition of Darwinism in a nutshell. In the definition of Darwinism we find the foundational priciples upon which the quest for the atheist holy grail: the purely material origin of life itself.
Definition of Islam: Ideology of Military Conquest Masquerading as a Religion. The Definition of Islam describes the “Convert, Submit or Die” War Strategy of Mohammed.
The term Marxist defined: Marxism today has overtaken many earlier terms. Re the term Marxist defined in contemporary usage. The term Liberal doesn’t mean what it used to mean either.
Definition of Conservatism: "That government is best that governs the least." A definition of conservatism must recognize that, politically speaking, the terms Liberal and Conservative have traded places.
Definition of Libertarian : A Pro-Constitutional Practical Atheist. The definition of Libertarian describes a religiously-cleansed conservatism defending core American political values while denying moral absolutes.
Definition of Capitalism: Economic Organization based on Private Property. Any true definition of Capitalism must state that it is purely an Economic system, not a Government system, and it works most efficiently and profitably under Representative Government.
Our argument supporting the Rule of Subsidiarity, practicality and common sense. The moral and organizational Rule of Subsidiarity is crucial to the rights of man and essential for freedom.
Definition of Communism: Marx's theoretical classless utopian society. The Marxian definition of Communism involves the theoretical, perfect, classless society with common ownership of all economic "means of production."
Definition of Fascism: System of Marxism resisting the Worker's Revolution. A true definition of Fascism must recognize its deep roots in Marxism.
Definition of Anarchy: Opposition to State Authority in favor of - well - Gangs. They said it couldn’t be done; but even the most cursory Definition of Anarchy shows it to be even more stupid than Communism.
Definition of Socialism: Intermediary phase between Marxism and Communism. Definition of Socialism: 1) The older ideology with "collective" ownership of power and means of production; 2) Marx's "Dictatorship Of The Proletariat" evolving toward Communist Utopia.
Definition of Democracy: Ideology stressing direct or electoral majority rule. The definition of Democracy as a form of government involves policy and law determined by the actual, real majority of the people governed.
Definition of Republic: A state in which sovereignty rests with the people. This definition of Republic stresses autonomy and rule-of-law, and places the root of sovereignty in the people or their electorate.
Liberal Democracy defines elected representative government under rule-of-law. Liberal Democracy is differentiated from Social Democracy by not restricting the right to private property, which is to say, the means of production.
A pure Democracy that left the natural economy alone would be ideal. Pure Democracy in the Jeffersonian model, with unfettered free market Capitalism, would out-perform any other system.
Description of pure Socialism - the ideal that all Socialism is driving toward. A true, pure Socialism would be something considerably less than the Utopians dream of, since perfection is not of this world, or of this life, and will never be encountered in either.
Social Democracy defines an attempt to force-fit Marxist ideas into a Democracy. Social Democracy, neither fish nor foul, seeks, by devious means, by the gradual rather than revolutionary path, the ultimate victory of Communism, or, Communist Utopia.
General Commentary Pages
Various unrelated topics that stirred thought and provoked writing (or quoting) at one time or another. The Everything Else Bucket.
Undoing Evil: Unraveling the sly "Good Intentions" destroying the West. Undoing Evil means reversing Political Correctness and Amorality, and returning to Pure Meritocricy.
Letter to an American Warrior, from an old American Citizen, with Love. An old man's advice to a young man, sent in a letter to an American Warrior.
The Judas Complex: How a traitor may not recognized his own treason. The Judas Complex explains how Judas Iscariot - like many a modern day Bishop - compromised with the world.
Christmas 2014: Hope is Reborn; Salvation has come into the world. The Christmas 2014 Turning Point: The Kingdom is upon us; our King is among us.
A Personal Relationship with Jesus Christ deepens faith and faith commitment. A Personal Relationship with America deepens love of country and patriotic commitment.
Work at home jobs that have had me. A long, costly and unsuccessful run at work from home jobs that didn't work for us.
Truth versus Agenda addresses the simplest of problems greatly complexified. Truth versus Agenda examines the contest between reality and its opposition.
Vic has Iron Weights for sale; Mama says they have to go. Lots of iron weights for sale; all have to go at once, in one sale.
My poor old truck is again starting to look like a poor old truck. After half-a-million miles, we're now approaching another decision time; another paint job, or a new truck.
A Palin Parker Ticket? My Dream Candidates for 2012. Why a Palin Parker ticket is better than any professional politician Republican ticket you can come up with for 2012.
Elitism Vs Palinism: Why the Left and the Elites Loath and Fear Sarah Palin. It isn’t just Marxism Vs Palinism; it’s also established intellectual elitism vs Palinism. The elite need someone to look down upon.
Here we see Bush family class captured in a simple private citizen’s photo. George W. (and Mrs.) Bush quietly demonstrate Bush family class without hoopla or fanfare.
Marxists love crisis, and they love an oil spill crisis most of all. Marxists even create and drive crisis. Their favorite crisis of all must be the Oil Spill Crisis, which is even better than a Banking Crisis.
The Godless Left leads the young and naive to their utopian Hell. For an honest comparison of the effects on youth, we need to look to the history of the Godless Left versus the Religious Right.
On Threats to America's National Existence. A look at the nature of our national existence, what makes us America, physical threats to that, and the possibility of just going out of existence.
On the ethics of language: English dictionary Vs. Political-Correctness taboos. Language evolves, yet morals are (or should be) fixed. This poses questions re the ethics of language.
Thinking Catholic direction: threats to America, Church, Ethos, even History. The Thinking Catholic Direction is multi-faceted, facing threats to American National Existence, Catholic Liturgy, our common Guiding Ethos - emphasis changes to meet the threat of the moment.
The website is going on hold for at least the next five weeks. Business calls, and I must respond. Will be traveling, and not taking the laptop this time.
Current Website Status. Still too busy for individual responses to questions, comments & criticisms.
Our 2006 Ohio Voter Guide. The choices are quite clear, and the 2006 Ohio Voter Guide was easy to produce.
On carrying my Lord, Jesus Christ, in my pocket. As a Eucharistic Minister, I am on occasion carrying the Lord Jesus in my pocket. It's a wondrous thing.
A 2006 Christmas and Hanukkah wish. May the Holy Days we celebrate remind us all of who we are, and how we are different from other peoples.
Current Democratic Party platform reveals anti-Semitic streak among Liberals. In their voting, their speechifying, and in the slant of their controlled mainstream media reporting, the current Democratic Party Platform is made clear to all observers.
The "Left", and The DaVinci Code, The Passion, and Cartoons of Mohammed. You can tell a lot about a movement by its public words. The Passion? "Unreservedly Bad." The DaVinci Code? "Unreservedly Good." Anything to do with Islam? "No Comment."
Home For Christmas 2008. Website Getting Active Again
Hydrogen power could be, and should be, the wave of our automotive future. Any move toward hydrogen power is a move toward a cleaner and more efficient fuel, and away from our dangerous dependency on oil.
Kerry lies again, and then lies about his lies, in concert with the SLIMC. There he goes again! Kerry lies again and again about American servicemen and veterans; he just can't help himself.
What's going on with Mel Gibson? Is he really an anti-Semite? I am surprised that Mel Gibson is an alcolholic. But I am never surprised at any words that come out of the mouth of any drunk.
Still Worrying Over NuVo Consequences. The Holidays have gone by, several days have passed, and the SANE NuVo Initiative still stands pat.
The Dem's October Surprise involves another flip-flop of their public "standard". The clearly pro-sodomy Party that openly seeks the "Gay" vote goes Victorian for another pre-election October Surprise ploy.
Some Problems with NuVo: the so-called Null-Vote Initiative. A "philosophical" movement aimed at keeping religious conservatives from voting? Seriously? Let me state my problems with NuVo.
Come, let us sit and reason together. Jews and Christians of various stripe and spot can say to each other, 'Come, let us sit and reason together.' But we can't do that with the Moslems.
Regarding SANE works dropping NuVo: Nul Vote Initiative dies with a whimper. If you can't really present a good argument, sit down. On SANE Works dropping the NuVo Initiative: a program that works hard to SOUND pro-American while ACTING to oppose American National Existence.
Even experts grossly underestimate the Marxist zeal of the American Left. The sharp Left turn happened in the Hoover-FDR era, and the Marxism of the American Left has been deepening ever since.
Thinking American, in a nutshell: When one has lots to say, but time is limited. The older I get, the busier I get. Answering multiple questions as a thinking American, but in a hurry.
"We are an Easter People, and Hallelujah is our Song." (John Paul the Great) Our absolutely unique and singular Easter story, and the incredible force with which it struck human history.
Witnessing, grieving and weeping for our dieing culture. What might it take to call a whole people back from the brink of cultural death?
So how come we have all these homeless people if our system is so great? The strong "Utopian Idealist" firmly believes that absolute worldly perfection is actually possible. Therefore, there should never be any such thing as a hungry or homeless person.
Taking a look at Illegal Imigration and Tax Problem solutions. In our view, the minimum wage and income tax have outlived their usefulness, and only contribute to the illegal alien problem.
First journal / blog entries when the thinking catholic blog first opened up. Notes to readers about what I was doing.
On-going WebSite work and planned WebPages as of 09/07/2006. Adding items to book store.
Vic's busted finger status - life goes on. Another busted finger status report, since the original one rolled off of the 50-entry BLOG update records.
Website Status as of 02/05/2009. No more Bookstore; no more Contact Me; no more complexity.
Website Status 03-09-2009. Just a note to bring you up to date on website status 03-09-2009.
Website Status 04/06/2009. Busy driving daily now; most website work will be weekend and as available.
The Plastic Bags and Eco Doom theory: will plastic bags end life as we know it? Plastic Bag and Eco Doom predictions tell us that plastic grocery and garbage bags will still be buried in the land fills and dumps a thousand years from now. Well … so what?
Farewell Smokey Biorseth; Rest In Peace. Hello Coal Biorseth; Welcome Home. As we were laying our beloved Smokey Biorseth to rest in his grave beside the lilies, a carbon-copy of Smokey, in younger form, emerged from the lilies.
Honky Biorseth really runs this house. If you want to know what's in any cabinet in the house, just ask Honky Biorseth.
More Marxist infiltration of higher education. Public school and the media are not the only places dominated by Marxist thought; even Catholic institutions are infected.
Of Families and Fortunes, and Inheritance Vs. Redistribution. Families and Fortunes are despised by Marxists, because Marxism demonizes the family, demonizes fortunes, and even demonizes profit.
Website Status Update 11/09/10. Just a Website status update; where we are and where we’re going.
Regarding the 2010 Tax Deal Pledge Breaker: Pledge? What Pledge? How can Republican deal makers even face us? We need to hang a Tea Party target on all professional politicians for 2012.
Pray for peace in Jerusalem, and for deliverance of Israel from harm. To pray for peace in Jerusalem is to pray for deliverance from Obama.
A tale of Promised Financial Melt-Down Debt Ceiling Nonsense and Happy Marxists. Everyone, on both sides, believes the Debt Ceiling Nonsense. Why?
Our Ohio voter Guide for the 2012 Election. The 2l012 Ohio Voter Guide – The Choices Have Never Been Clearer, or more critical.
Evangelization enters the animal kingdom with the first bear prayer. It is fitting that the first bear prayer would be a prayer of thanksgiving.
Is the Internet down in Lithuania? Sudden loss of Lithanian traffic suggests the internet is down in Lithuania.
The rise of the Femi Nazi Green Beret, and the decline of military victory. The first Femi Nazi Green Beret will be awarded out of fairness, not excellence.
Food Insurance: Is this stuff really any good? All of us conspiracy-theorizing, global-calamity doomsday-preppers need their Food Insurance.
We just had to try to do Robert Irvine's Plastic Wrapped Baby Back Ribs. Put plastic wrapped baby back ribs in the oven? What? Are you nuts?
Thoughts on the first Eucharist, established by the Last Supper. The first Eucharist was recognized by the Apostles for what it was on that holiest Holy Thursday.
Tea-Party-Candidates-04-18-2014. The Constitution is not going to be restored to legal preeminence unless we replace leadership incumbents of BOTH PARTIES.
Ecce homo; Behold the man. Ecce Homo. Behold the Innocent Lamb, who takes away the sins of the world.
When your system slows down or hangs, it's time for a Total System Reboot. America, the World, and even the Catholic Church may need a Total System Reboot.
If you can't find the page you're looking for, try the